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In 1000, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (936-1013), an Arab physician described as the father of surgery .  who lived in Al-Andalus , published the 30-volume Kitab al-Tasrif , the first illustrated work on surgery. [ citation needed ] In this book, he wrote about the use of general anesthesia for surgery. c. 1020, Ibn Sīnā (980–1037) described the use of inhaled anesthesia in The Canon of Medicine . [ citation needed ] The Canon described the "soporific sponge", a sponge imbued with aromatics and narcotics , which was to be placed under a patient's nose during surgical operations.  Ibn Zuhr (1091–1161) was another Arab physician from Al-Andalus. In his 12th century medical textbook Al-Taisir , Ibn Zuhr describes the use of general anesthesia. [ citation needed ] These three physicians were among many who performed operations under inhaled anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges.   Opium made its way from Asia Minor to all parts of Europe between the 10th and 13th centuries.