To date, four studies bear on the interactive aspects of the model, two described in Van Orden et al. (2008), and two described in Joiner et al. (in press). In a study of undergraduates, Van Orden et al. (2008) showed that the statistical interaction between (high) burdensomeness and (low) belonging predicted current suicidal ideation; this occurred beyond important covariates, like depressive symptoms. A second study on psychotherapy outpatients also provided evidence for a statistical interaction between scores on an acquired capability measure and an index of perceived burdensomeness, such that acquired capability in the presence of high levels of perceived burdensomeness predicted clinician ratings of suicide risk—again, above and beyond the contribution of other risk factors (., depression scores, gender, and age). In the first of the Joiner et al. studies, in a large, diverse, and representative community sample of young people, burdensomeness and low belonging interacted to predict suicidal ideation. In the second study, acquired capacity, perceived burdensomeness, and low belonging interacted as hypothesized to predict suicide attempt status in a clinical sample of young adults.
Maslow doesn’t think that self-actualizers are perfect, of
There were several flaws or imperfections he discovered
the way as
well: First, they often suffered considerable anxiety and
but realistic anxiety and guilt, rather than misplaced or neurotic
Some of them were absentminded and overly kind. And finally,
of them had unexpected moments of ruthlessness, surgical coldness,
loss of humor.