There are about 2 million students in Germany today, yet Germany is still below the international average. This phenomenon can be explained in part by the low rate of German students receiving their bachelor's degree. Consequently, of those graduates, nearly one third of them choose to follow a vocational training program within the binary system rather than go on to graduate school; professional training is highly valued and graduate school is largely comprised of students focused on research. Thus although universities are training centers of sorts for students, they are also dedicated to basic and applied research. Studies in universities follow well-defined rules, but most disciplines have flexibility in regards to personal research projects.