In Italy , the engineering degree and "engineer" title is delivered by Polytechnic Universities upon completion of 3 years of studies (laurea). Additional master's degree (2 years) and doctorate programs (3 years) provide the title of "dottore di ricerca in ingegneria". Students that started studies in Polytechnic Universities before 2005 (when Italy adopted the Bologna declaration ) need to complete a 5 years program to get the engineer title. In this case the master's degree is obtained after 1 year of studies. Only people with an engineer title can be employed as "engineers". Still, some with competence and experience in an engineering field that do not have such a title, can still be employed to perform engineering tasks as "specialist", "assistant", "technologist" or "technician". But, only engineers can take legal responsibility and provide guarantee upon the work done by a team in their area of expertise. Sometimes a company working in this area, which temporarily does not have any employees with an engineer title must pay for an external service of an engineering audit to provide legal guarantee for their products or services.