Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners . Usually these learners have had their first-language education interrupted.  Many of these learners require a different level of support, teaching approaches and strategies, and a different curriculum from mainstream adult ESL learners. For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills,   and these learners may avoid reading or writing.  Often these learners do not start classroom tasks immediately, do not ask for help, and often assume the novice role when working with peers.  Generally these learners may lack self-confidence.  For some, prior schooling is equated with status, cultured, civilized, high class, and they may experience shame among peers in their new ESL classes.