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Margot Badran, Feminism, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt, Princeton University Press.
Herbert Bodman and Nayereh Tohidi, editors, Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity Within Unity, 1998.
Fatma Gocek & Shiva Balaghi, editors, Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity and Power, Columbia University Press, 1995.
Ramsya Harike & Elsa Marston, Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change, Franklin Watts, 1996. Young Adult.
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Nikki Keddie, "The Past and Present of Women in the Muslim World," Journal of World History, Spring, 1990.
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Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.