Pollution research paper outline

The major sources of water pollution can be classified as municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Municipal water pollution consists of waste water from homes and commercial establishments.[Ken Rubin] The main goal of treating municipal wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids, oxygen-demanding materials, dissolved inorganic compounds, and harmful bacteria. The basic methods of treating municipal wastewater fall into three stages: primary treatment, includes grit removal, screening, grinding, and sedimentation; secondary treatment, includes oxidation of dissolved organic matter by means of using biologically active sludge, which is then filtered off; and last treatment, is where advanced biological methods of nitrogen removal and chemical and physical methods such as granular filtration and activated carbon absorption are employed.[Ken Rubin] The handling and disposal of solid residues can account for 25 to 50 percent of the capital and operational costs of a treatment plant. The characteristics of industrial waste waters can differ considerably both within and among industries. The impact of industrial discharges depends not only on their collective characteristics, such as biochemical oxygen demand and the amount of suspended solids, but also on their content of specific inorganic and organic substances. Three options are available in controlling industrial wastewater.[Ken Rubin] Control can take place at the point of generation in the plant; wastewater can be pretreated for discharge to municipal treatment sources; or wastewater can be treated completely at the plant and either reused or discharged directly into receiving waters.[Ken Rubin] Agriculture, including commercial livestock and poultry farming, is the source of many organic and inorganic pollutants in surface waters and groundwater. These contaminants include both sediment from erosion cropland and compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen that partly originate in animal wastes and commercial fertilizers.[Ken Rubin]

Pollution research paper outline

pollution research paper outline

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